Critical Thinking For S

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Skills taught in isolation do little more than prepare students for tests of isolated skills (Spache and Spache, 1986).

The same criticism may be made with regard to commercial thinking skills materials.

CLASSIFICATION GAMES Classification plays a significant role in the development of logical thinking and abstract concepts from early childhood to adulthood.

Classification skill is integral to vocabulary-concept development and, therefore, to reading and retention of information (Gerhard, 1975).

However, when such materials are integrated with content, they may become effective tools for attacking real issues.

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING At each educational level, thinking must be practiced in each content field. It's much easier to teach students to memorize facts and then assess them with multiple-choice tests.Education pundits have called for renewed interest in problem solving for years.As far back as 1967, Raths, Jonas, Rothstein and Wassermann (1967) decried the lack of emphasis on thinking in the schools.Thinking cannot be divorced from content; in fact, thinking is a way of learning content (Raths and others, 1967).In every course, and especially in content subjects, students should be taught to think logically, analyze and compare, question and evaluate.Critical thinking can be used for many different purposes.For example, it can be used to develop technico-instrumental, specialized expert knowledge, and it can also be used to remind learners and teachers that specialized knowledge and instrumental skills have limits and need to be complemented by other, broader sets of skills.The freewriting technique produces conceptual insights. Elbow asked students to write a few incidents that came to mind without careful thinking. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1979. This resulted in more intuitive, creative thinking. Elbow (1983) has presented a two-step writing process called first-order and second-order thinking. For first-order thinking, he recommends freewriting--an unplanned, free-association type of heuristic writing designed to help students discover what they think about a topic.

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