Developmental and psychodynamic theories continue to be basis in much contemporary thought and practice.
The life-span development approach addresses the basic nature versus nurture debate by allowing for both.
If a concrete thinker needs assistance to see other possibilities, a counselor may help by providing a hands-on, product-oriented approach to help the person conceptualize problems.
The counselor needs to be aware of individual thinking levels.
When working with children and adolescents, the counselor should facilitate the use of an appropriate activity or technique, which matches the thinking level of the individual.
When working with adults, the counselor needs to address issues indicating the appropriate starting points in problem solving and decision-making.Each of these stages is characterized by unique ways of thinking and therefore determines how adults interact with others.He believed that children actively learn by doing, using the environment to stimulate their thinking. Because children learn best when they can manipulate, use hands-on activities, and make the abstract concrete, counselors may use the developing thinking of children throughout the elementary school years to plan appropriate guidance activities.He promoted the idea that children set the learning agenda and direct their own growth around the environment around which they grow.Piaget’s ideas help understand how people function in their environments.Movement from one stage to the next is conditioned on successful completion of each developmental stage.Also, healthy development results from facing life’s problems at each stage of development.Adolescent thinking results in idealistic and utopian thinking in which the individual thinks all is open and available.When approaching problems, the individual looks for solutions that are familiar.Developmental theories should help counselors understand potential outlooks regarding the needs of individuals during the different stages of their lives.Erikson believed that an individual’s interactions with others describe development.