The first revolution began when the Russian army was sent in to control a protest led by factory workers who had recently lost their jobs.However, the army did not follow the Czar’s orders and many soldiers defected and protested in solidarity with the workers.This section provides a brief overview of communist ideology in the European and Russian contexts and includes information on the rise of the Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin and its continuation under Joseph Stalin. Video: Karl Marx and , which he wrote with Friedrich Engels in 1848.
Though it did outline some basic requirements for a communist society, the manifesto was largely analytical of historical events that led to its necessity and suggested the system’s ultimate goals, but did not concretely provide instructions for setting up a communist government.
Though Marx died well before a government tested his theories, his writings, in conjunction with a rising disgruntled working class across Europe, did immediately influence revolutionary industrial workers throughout Europe who created an international labor movement.
Other revolutionaries including Leon Trotsky also returned to Russia to seize the opportunity.
The two established the Bolshevik party, a communist party that was staunchly opposed to the War, which continued to wreak havoc on the unstable nation.
However, when the Bolsheviks gained only 25 percent of votes in the 1917 elections, Lenin overturned the results and used military force to prevent democratic assembly.
He established several state-centered government programs and policies that would continue, in some form, throughout the reign of the Soviet Union.
The new urban working class that lived and worked in terrible conditions throughout Europe got fed up with their life of squalor as they saw upper-class citizens (the bourgeois as Marx labeled them in the Manifesto) living lives of luxury.
The ideas and goals of communism appealed strongly to the revolutionaries even after the 1848 revolutions collapsed.
Lenin disagreed with Stalin’s tactics in Georgia, and right before his death dictated notes in his Testament warning of Stalin’s excessive ambition and obsession with power, and advised that he be removed from the General Secretary position.
However, Lenin died shortly thereafter and Stalin allied himself with several other Politburo members to suppress Lenin’s Testament and remain in a position of power.