Lupus Essay Apa Style

Lupus Essay Apa Style-72
Gel images were collected by using Base Imag IR software, version 4.0, and alleles were determined by using Gene Imag IR, version 3.52. 4.0 package, version Beta 3.28 29 For all linkage analyses, the pedigrees were analyzed together and as subsets containing only African American or European American pedigrees.Twenty-nine pedigrees were initially genotyped by the Mammalian Genotyping Center in Marshfield, WI ( using a fluorescent-based detection system. Two-point maximum logarithm of odds (lod) scores were calculated by using FASTLINK, version 4.1P, and the ANALYZE package.30-32 Lod scores were generated for each pedigree by using recombination fractions in increments of 0.05 from 0 (complete linkage) to 0.50 (no linkage).

Gel images were collected by using Base Imag IR software, version 4.0, and alleles were determined by using Gene Imag IR, version 3.52. 4.0 package, version Beta 3.28 29 For all linkage analyses, the pedigrees were analyzed together and as subsets containing only African American or European American pedigrees.Twenty-nine pedigrees were initially genotyped by the Mammalian Genotyping Center in Marshfield, WI ( using a fluorescent-based detection system. Two-point maximum logarithm of odds (lod) scores were calculated by using FASTLINK, version 4.1P, and the ANALYZE package.30-32 Lod scores were generated for each pedigree by using recombination fractions in increments of 0.05 from 0 (complete linkage) to 0.50 (no linkage).Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complicated autoimmune disease with a definite genetic predisposition.

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ANA, anti–double-stranded (ds) DNA, anti-Sm, antiphospholipid immunoglobulin G (Ig G) and Ig M antibodies were extracted from the medical record and performed in the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF) Clinical Immunology Laboratory (anticardiolipin was measured in our laboratory) using the serum specimens obtained for this project by following standard procedures.25 26 Anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-P, and anti-n RNP (nuclear ribonucleoprotein) were also evaluated by using Ouchterlony immunodiffusion27 in each affected subject.

Evidence for biologic false-positive test for syphilis and the lupus anticoagulant was extracted from the medical record.

Neuropsychiatric disease is also associated with thrombocytopenia in SLE (Table2), most strikingly among the European Americans.

Serositis, arthritis, and the cutaneous criteria for SLE classification (malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral ulcers) were not associated with thrombocytopenia (data not shown).

We incorporated this difference into the models by using one penetrance function for men and another for women. This analysis models covariance of all affected relative pairs as a function of marker allele-sharing identical by descent using the conditional logistic model proposed by Olson34 and Goddard et al.35 There were a total of 387 patients with SLE in the 184 families evaluated.

For each marker, allele frequencies were estimated by allele counting using founders. Of these, 116 families and 233 patients with SLE were of European ancestry, whereas 63 families and 133 patients with SLE were of sub-Saharan African ancestry.Anti-ds DNA and antiphospholipid antibodies were found more often in patients with thrombocytopenic SLE (Table 2), whereas antinuclear antibodies, anti-Sm, and anti-n RNP were not (data not shown).In addition, among black patients anti-Ro (or Sjögren syndrome A [SS-A]) was found much more commonly in those with thrombocytopenia of whom 9 (60%) of 15 had anti-Ro.Clinical manifestations were defined as either present or absent based on the definitions in the SLE classification criteria.Categorical data were compared by using the chi-squared test.There were 43 women and 4 (8.5%) men, whereas 9.3% of the total SLE patient population was male.The average age of onset of SLE was 24.1 years (standard deviation = 8.3), which did not differ from the SLE patients without thrombocytopenia (not shown). Among the families that had a patient with thrombocytopenic SLE, about one half constituted a sibling pair, whereas in the other families the relationships of the patients with SLE were more complicated (Figure1).This variability is reflected in the classification system proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)1 in which patients with SLE may fulfill any 4 of 11 criteria.The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is the most sensitive of these criteria and is present in virtually all patients. The disease tends to occur within families, but without a clear pattern of inheritance (reviewed in Sestak et al2).Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically and immunologically complex disease, which can affect any organ system.The disease may be mild, or severe and life threatening.

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