Modernization And Westernization Essay

Modernization And Westernization Essay-21
Karl Deutsch has coined the term “social mobilization” to denote most of the socio-demographic aspects of modernization.He has defined social mobilization as “the process in which major clusters of old social, economic and psychological commitments are eroded and broken and people become available for new patterns of socialization and behavior,” and has indicated that some of its main indices are exposure to aspects of modern life through demonstrations of machinery, buildings, consumers' goods, etc.; response to mass media; change of residence; urbanization; change from agricultural occupations; literacy; growth of per capita income, etc.

Karl Deutsch has coined the term “social mobilization” to denote most of the socio-demographic aspects of modernization.He has defined social mobilization as “the process in which major clusters of old social, economic and psychological commitments are eroded and broken and people become available for new patterns of socialization and behavior,” and has indicated that some of its main indices are exposure to aspects of modern life through demonstrations of machinery, buildings, consumers' goods, etc.; response to mass media; change of residence; urbanization; change from agricultural occupations; literacy; growth of per capita income, etc.

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And yet beyond these variations there are also developed many common characteristics which constitute perhaps the major core of “modernization“ of a modern society, and it would be worth while to analyze these characteristics.

SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATIONThe common characteristics of modernization refer both to what may be called socio-demographic aspects of societies and to structural aspects of social organization.

In some areas kings historically held the land in trust and in modern time this has made the transition to government control easier.

Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.[...] THE BACKGROUNDModernization and aspirations to modernity are probably the most overwhelming and the most permeating features of the contemporary scene.

European colonization greatly changed the cultures of the above mentioned countries cultures, economies, and religions.

Driven by the desire The aggressive westernization of Nigeria is being guided by the United States and other Western countries.Asia, Africa, and Latin America have all been influenced by the transmission of Western cultural values through direct as well as indirect contact.By means of colonization Asia, Africa and Latin America were particularly affected as Western values were enforced upon the populations by colonial assault.This is associated with institutions like markets in economic life, voting and party activities in politics, and instrumentally recruited bureaucratic organizations and mechanisms in most institutional spheres.Perhaps the most important aspects of this differentiation and specialization of roles in all the major institutional spheres is the separation between the different roles held by an individual – especially among the occupational and political roles, and between them and the family and kinship roles.In western Europe they developed from feudal or absolutist states with strong urban centers, in eastern Europe from more autocratic states and less urbanized societies.In the United States and the first Dominions (Canada, Australia, etc.) they have developed through processes of colonization and immigration, some of which were rooted in strong religious motivations and organized in groups of religious settlers, while others were based mostly on large-scale immigration oriented mostly to economic opportunity and greater equality of status.Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents.Modern or modernizing societies have developed from a great variety of different traditional, premodern societies.In most Asian and African societies the process of modernization has begun from within colonial frameworks, some (especially in Asia) based on preceding more centralized monarchical societies and elaborate literary-religious traditions, others (especially in Africa) mostly on tribal structures and traditions.As we shall see, the different starting points of the processes of modernization of these societies have greatly influenced the specific contours of their development and the problems encountered in the course of it.

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