It exempted restaurants in hotels – City Council members reasoned that hotel restaurants catered to large numbers of visitors from abroad, where smoking is more acceptable than in the United States.
In America, California's 1998 smoking ban encouraged other states such as New York to implement similar regulations.
Fearing reduced sales, the industry created a media and legislative programme that focused upon "accommodation".
Tolerance and courtesy were encouraged as a way to ease heightened tensions between smokers and those around them, while avoiding smoking bans. state of Minnesota enacted the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, making it the first state to restrict smoking in most public spaces.
In 2009, a report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is sufficient evidence (the highest level of evidence under the report’s rating scale) that implementation of smokefree legislation decreases respiratory symptoms in workers.
An 8% reduction in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in 2004, the year after the state smokefree law took effect, accounting for 3,813 fewer admission and million in savings on hospital costs Reductions in monthly hospital admissions for heart attacks, angina, stroke, and asthma in counties with no municipal or county smokefree laws predating the state law compared with counties with such laws.Restrictions upon smoking in bars and restaurants can substantially improve the air quality in such establishments.For example, one study listed on the website of the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places substantially reduced RSP (respirable suspended particles) levels in western New York hospitality venues.Along with tax measures, cessation measures, and education, smoking bans are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes.When effectively implemented they are seen as an important element of policy to support behaviour change in favour of a healthy lifestyle.A 2004 study showed New Jersey bars and restaurants had more than nine times the levels of indoor air pollution of neighbouring New York City, which had already enacted its smoking ban.For example, among employees of the Norwegian establishments that enacted smoking restrictions, tests showed decreased levels of nicotine in the urine of both smoking and non-smoking workers (as compared with measurements prior to going smoke-free).RSP levels were reduced in every venue that permitted smoking before the law was implemented, including venues in which only second-hand smoke from an adjacent room was observed at baseline.The CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which also showed substantially improved indoor air quality after smoking bans were instituted.The earliest citywide European smoking bans were enacted shortly thereafter.Such bans were enacted in Bavaria, Kursachsen, and certain parts of Austria in the late 17th century.