The Miniature Guide To Critical Thinking

The Miniature Guide To Critical Thinking-41
7) All reasoning contains INFERENCES or INTERPRETATIONS by which we draw CONCLUSIONS and give meaning to data. • Check inferences for their consistency with each other. 8) All reasoning leads somewhere or has IMPLICATIONS and CONSEQUENCES. Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among young people, superficially. What are some of the complexities of this question? (State as accurately as possible the author’s purpose for writing the article.) 2)  The key question that the author is addressing is ____________________.

7) All reasoning contains INFERENCES or INTERPRETATIONS by which we draw CONCLUSIONS and give meaning to data. • Check inferences for their consistency with each other. 8) All reasoning leads somewhere or has IMPLICATIONS and CONSEQUENCES. Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among young people, superficially. What are some of the complexities of this question? (State as accurately as possible the author’s purpose for writing the article.) 2)  The key question that the author is addressing is ____________________.

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1 The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Contents Why Critical Thinking?

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 The Elements of Thought ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 A Checklist for Reasoning��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Questions Using the Elements of Thought������������������������������������������������� 6 Three Levels of Thought������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Universal Intellectual Standards��������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Template for Analyzing the Logic of Articles and Textbooks�������������11 Criteria for Evaluating Reasoning�����������������������������������������������������������������12 Essential Intellectual Traits �����������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Three Kinds of Questions���������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 A Template for Problem-Solving�������������������������������������������������������������������17 Analyzing and Assessing Research�������������������������������������������������������������18 What Critical Thinkers Routinely Do�����������������������������������������������������������19 Stages of Critical Thinking Development�������������������������������������������������20 The Problem of Egocentric Thinking�����������������������������������������������������������21 The Problem of Sociocentric Thinking�������������������������������������������������������22 Envisioning Critical Societies�������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Fifth Edition © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Why Critical Thinking?

Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.

A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to ­improving it.

We advocate a concept of critical thinking that organizes instruction in every subject area at every educational level, around it, and on it, and through it.

One implication of such an emphasis is this: that only through long-term planning can a substantive concept of critical thinking take root in instruction and learning. But without long-term planning nothing substantial occurs. The 28th International Conference will focus on The Art of Teaching for Intellectual Engagement.• Make sure that all information used is clear, accurate, and relevant to the question at issue. Clarity: Could you elaborate further on that point? A clearer question might be “What can educators do to ensure that students learn the skills and abilities which help them function successfully on the job and in their daily decision-making? Often, however, “effort” does not measure the quality of student learning, and when that is so, effort is irrelevant to their appropriate grade. Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others?• Make sure you have gathered sufficient information. Inferences/ Conclusions: How did I reach this conclusion? © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Depth: How does your answer address the complexities in the question? © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Template for Analyzing the Logic of an Article Take an article that you have been assigned to read for class, completing the “logic” of it using the template below. Google(); req('single_work'); $('.js-splash-single-step-signup-download-button').one('click', function(e){ req_and_ready('single_work', function() ); new c. This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book.• Restrict your claims to those supported by the data you have. But higher order thinking can be inconsistent in quality. To think at the highest level of quality, we need not only intellectual skills, but intellectual traits as well. In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we don’t yet know what it is saying. A statement can be clear but not accurate, as in “Most dogs are over 300 pounds in weight.” Precision: Could you give me more details? A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise, as in “Jack is overweight.” (We don’t know how overweight Jack is, one pound or 500 pounds.) Relevance: How is that connected to the question? A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue.• Search for information that opposes your position as well as information that supports it. © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Universal Intellectual Standards: And questions that can be used to apply them Universal intellectual standards are standards which should be applied to thinking to ensure its quality. The ultimate goal, then, is for these standards to become infused in the thinking of students, forming part of their inner voice, guiding them to reason better. For example, the question “What can be done about the education system in America? In order to adequately address the question, we would need to have a clearer understanding of what the person asking the question is considering the “problem” to be. For example, students often think that the amount of effort they put into a course should be used in raising their grade in a course.A line of reasoning may be clear, accurate, precise, relevant, and deep, but lack breadth (as in an argument from either the conservative or liberal standpoints which gets deeply into an issue, but only recognizes the insights of one side of the question). When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is “logical.” When the combination is not mutually supporting, is contradictory in some sense, or does not “make sense,” the combination is “not logical.” Fairness: Are we considering all relevant viewpoints in good faith? By these concepts the author means _________________________.Are we distorting some information to maintain our biased perspective? (Figure out the most important ideas you would have to understand in order to understand the author’s line of reasoning.) 6)  The main assumption(s) underlying the author’s thinking is (are) ___________.If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Report copyright / DMCA form Speci al Ed ition on rence e f n o C ional e ncing th rnat Annou al Inte ing nnu l Think y a c i t i 28th A r C ele at Berk iversit ear Un N July 19 008 – 24, 2 lifornia y of Ca The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking C oncepts and T ools By Dr. Linda Elder The Foundation for Critical Thinking [email protected] Client: FCT Proof 5 Proof 6 Proof 7 Proof 8 Project Title: Concepts/Tools — Conf ©2008 (07-069) 12/3/07 a 12/3/07 p 12/3/07 p 12/4/07 p Please join us for the 28th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking Near University of California at Berkeley July 19 – 24, 2008 For more than 25 years, the Foundation For Critical Thinking has emphasized the importance of teaching for critical thinking in a strong, rather than a weak, sense.We are committed to a clear and substantive concept of critical thinking (rather than one that is ill-defined); a concept that interfaces well wwith the disciplines, that applies directly to the needs of everyday and professional life, that emphasizes the affective as well as the cognitive dimensions of thought.

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