Variables such as institutional human resource guidelines, state or federal statutes, rules, or regulations, as well as regional environmental conditions, may impact the relevance and implementation of these recommendations.
Consequently, it has been proposed that AAS prevention efforts should also focus on the role of polysubstance use .
The use of nutritional supplements is widespread among AAS users [16–19], as such supplements are suggested to improve muscle growth, increase alertness, boost metabolism, and decrease weight or body fat.
AAS use is also associated with increased aggression and violence , although it has been suggested that this association is confounded by concurrent polysubstance use (i.e., the consecutive or simultaneous use of two or more substances) [6, 8].
Traditionally, AAS have mainly been used by professional athletes and bodybuilders.
AAS use shares several characteristics with misuse of other substances, e.g., withdrawal syndrome, continued use despite adverse effects, and maladaptive behavioural patterns .
Moreover, concomitant AAS and drug use is associated with increased risks of mortality, and negative psychophysical effects, possibly due to the combined effects of substances .However, AAS use in recreational sports is increasing, and prevalence rates among recreational sportspeople are now believed to have surpassed rates among professional athletes , making this a public health problem.In their recent report, The European Commission Group of Experts on AAS use in recreational sports concluded that there are few studies on AAS use, and that this compares unfavourably with alcohol and drug research .The project consists of two studies: Study A will examine the prevalence of AAS use and the effectiveness of 100% PHT (aims 1 and 2), and data for Study A will be collected using questionnaires distributed to gym attendees at two assessment points: baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-up (post-intervention).Study B will evaluate the implementation of 100% PHT (aim 3), and semi-structured interviews with participating stakeholders will be carried out post-intervention.They have identified three key elements that should be addressed in AAS research to inform policy, practice, and interventions: information on AAS prevalence, use of other substances (beyond AAS), and determinants and correlates of AAS use.Furthermore, they suggest that gyms are important target arenas for preventive efforts .The NATA reserves the right to rescind or modify its position statements at any time.Note: It is important to know how to evaluate and cite information first.The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms.Specifically, the project aims to: 1) assess the prevalence of AAS, and its associations with alcohol, illicit drugs, and nutritional supplements use; 2) examine whether 100% PHT can decrease AAS use in gyms, and 3) provide insights into which factors facilitate and/or impede implementation of the programme.