What Is Citations In A Research Paper

Common knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the field.For example, a psychologist will be aware of pavlovian conditioning, so you do not need to reference that if it from your own head. There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style.

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If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system.

For example, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.

For example, NHS, for the National Health Service, or WHO, for the World Health Organization.

The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography.

You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution).

When writing a journal article, literature review, convention paper, or any other academic document, authors must include in-text citations whenever they refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. You don't need our permission to copy the article; just include a link/reference back to this page.The American Psychological Association standard (APA-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific disciplines.For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing.Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution.If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al.' afterwards.For example If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway.It is perfectly acceptable to quote the work of others and, in fact, it is essential that you do so.Occasionally, you will use direct quotes from another source, but most of the time you will be paraphrasing the work.

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